A new type of DNA chart introduced in Second Site presents data in a more intuitive viewing format than the usual grid. Below you'll find abbreviated DNA signatures overlaid on a familiar descendant chart constructed with traditional genealogical ("paper") evidence. This overlay chart includes calculated Y-DNA signatures for ancestors derived from the test results of their descendants.

For the MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor), a derived signature is often called a modal signature. This DNA Overlay Chart, however, does not derive DNA signatures using the statistical mode — i.e., it does not choose the values that occur the most frequently in the set of descendant markers. Instead, it uses a "maximum parsimony" method described by Alvy Ray Smith. The rules are designed to choose marker values that would produce the observed test results of descendants via the minimum number of mutations.

The Second Site program which built this chart derives probable DNA signatures. It is possible for unlikely mutation sequences to occur, such as multiple mutations occurring in the same generation, which obscure the DNA signature of the father. All methods for deriving DNA signatures are subject to uncertainty, but the maximum parsimony method reduces the possibility that a bias in the test results (many people tested from one branch of the family) will unduly influence the derived DNA signature of the MRCA.

Henry/1w Brooks
(c 1592 - 1683)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,{38,39},12,11,12
John/2w Brooks
(c 1623 - 1691)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
John/3w Brooks
(1664 - 1733)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
Nathan/4w Brooks
(1706 - 1751)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
John/5w Brooks
(1733 - 1776)
23,14,24,{15,15c},{15c,16},{17,17g},{19,19c},15,17,{37,38},38,12,11,{11,12}
Nathan/6w Brooks
(1767 - 1826)
23,14,24,{15,15c},{15c,16},{17,17g},{19,19c},15,17,{37,38},38,12,11,{11,12}
Rev. Cyrus/7w Brooks
(1811 - 1902)
23,14,24,15c,15c,17g,19c,15,17,38,38,12,11,11
Rev. Edward Coulson/8w Brooks
(1846 - 1939)
Edward Charles/9w Brooks
(1895 - 1938)
Edward Charles/10w Brooks
(1921 - 1962)
MOB 42857
23,14,24,15c,15c,17g,19c,15,17,38,38,12,11,11
Harrison/7w Brooks
(1813 - 1881)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,37,38,12,11,12
Omar Harrison/8w Brooks
(1861 - 1939)
George Wright/9w Brooks
(1891 - 1967)
Ellis George/10w Brooks
(1914 - 1990)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,37,38,12,11,12
LyEB 81368
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,37,38,12,11,12
GFB 264736
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,37,38,12,11,12
Jonathan/5w Brooks
(1734/35 - 1807)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
Nathan/6w Brooks
(1774 - 1854)
Dr. Jonathan Williams/7w Brooks
(1811 - 1892)
Jonathan Williams/8w Brooks
(1847 - 1910)
Hugh/9w Brooks
(1890 - 1942)
Hugh/10w Brooks
(1926 - )
MDB 100257
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
24,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,37,38,12,10,12
Timothy/5w Brooks
(1726 - 1788)
Timothy/6w Brooks
(1751 - 1810)
William McCobb/7w Brooks
(1793 - )
William Thomas/8w Brooks
(1829 - )
Lincoln/9w Brooks
(s 1863 - )
Allision/10w Brooks
(s 1895 - )
Richard Lincoln/11w Brooks
RoWB 196467
24,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,37,38,12,10,12
Jabez/3w Brooks
(1673 - 1746/47)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,16,17,38,38,12,11,12
Ebenezer/4w Brooks
(1712 - 1789)
William/5w Brooks
(1745 - b 1777)
William/6w Brooks
(1771 - 1850)
Lemuel Augustus/7w Brooks
(1809 - 1857)
Edwin Augustus/8w Brooks
(1844 - 1929)
Edwin (Ned) Deering/9w Brooks
(1877 - 1971)
Edwin Deering/10w Brooks
(1912 - 2002)
HLB 90157
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,16,17,38,38,12,11,12
Ebenezer/3w Brooks
(1666 - b 1738)
23,14,23,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
Pvt. Adonijah/5w Brooks
(1739 - 1809)
Adonijah/6w Brooks
(1778 - 1865)
James/7w Brooks
(1804 - 1896)
Richard Gates/8w Brooks
(1830 - 1904)
Levi Gates/9w Brooks
(1872 - 1952)
Richard William/10w Brooks
(1901 - 1990)
RiWB 195298
23,14,23,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,38,12,11,12
Capt. Timothy/2w Brooks
(c 1635 - b 1712)
23,14,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,39,12,11,12
Rev. Timothy/3w Brooks
(1661 - c 1715/16)
23,14,24,15,15,17,19,15,18,38,39,13,11,12
Timothy/4w Brooks
(1687 - b 1730)
Timothy/5w Brooks
(1710 - 1764)
Oliver/6w Brooks
(1759 - 1849)
Oliver J/7w Brooks
(1795 - 1882)
Almond/8w Brooks
(1821 - 1897)
Clarence Milford/9w Brooks
(c 1854 - 1936)
Walter Henry/10w Brooks
(1883 - 1975)
WHB 95962
23,14,24,15,15,17,19,15,18,38,39,13,11,12
Josiah/3w Brooks
(1681 - b 1732)
23,15,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,39,12,11,12
Henry/4w Brooks
(s 1710 - a 1749/50)
Henry/5w Brooks
(c 1738/39 - 1774)
Josiah Harris/6w Brooks
(1770 - 1849)
Amariah Harris/7w Brooks
(1813 - 1862)
John Wesley/8w Brooks
(1844 - 1922)
David Wesley/9w Brooks
(1867 - 1951)
Otis Fay/10w Brooks
(1902 - 1994)
PWB 77390
23,15,24,15,16,17,19,15,17,38,39,12,11,12
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
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132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173838121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
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Haplogroup: R-M269
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1323141111141212121313291591011112415192915c15c17g19c11111923151517173838121211915168101081010122323161012121681122201412111311111412
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
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132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173738121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-Z343
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5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173738121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-M269
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3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
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3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173738121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-BY16169
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3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173838121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-M269
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132414111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173738121210915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-M269
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923161517173838121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-M269
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111231519291516171911111923151517173838121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173839121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-L48
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111114121212131329159101111241519291515171911111923151518173839131211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Haplogroup: R-M269
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y

G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
-
S
1
a
3
9
5
-
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
-
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
-
a
4
1
3
-
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
132314111115121212131329159101111241519291516171911111923151517173839121211915168101081010122323161012121681222201412111311111412
Male